The Arts & Crafts movement was founded in England in 1888, in response to the Industrial Revolution. Its creators proclaimed the need to move away from industrial production in favour of handicraft, in order to provide a large number of people with functional and well-designed everyday items. Forty years later, Walter Gropius, the founder of the famous Bauhaus German art school, argued for creating a strong relationship between art and industry. Architects and artists saw in mass production an opportunity for high-quality products to enter the homes of ordinary people, thanks to their affordable prices resulting from standardisation and large-scale manufacturing. It was then that the idea of industrial design was born.