The kitchen is one of the living areas most exposed to wear and dirt. Tiles used in the kitchen should have a high surface resistance, so for this type of room, we recommend tiles with a minimum of class 3 abrasion resistance (PEI 3/1500). In the kitchen, you can use both glazed and unglazed tiles, keeping in mind that in the case of polished and lappato surfaces, scratching elements (such as sand, metal furniture feet) should be avoided.
Basically, all types of tiles are suitable for the bathroom. It is important for them to be resistant to household chemicals and to allow thorough cleaning and disinfection with detergents. For bathrooms where soft footwear is used, class 3 abrasion resistance should be sufficient (750 or 1500 rotations). Another important consideration is to use moisture insulation before installing the tiles and use appropriate insulation after the installation. In the bathroom, you can use both glazed and unglazed tiles, keeping in mind that in the case of polished and lappato surfaces, scratching elements (such as sand, metal furniture feet) should be avoided.
Living room floor is much less susceptible to wear, abrasion and dirt than in the kitchen or corridors, hence it is possible to use tiles with PEI 3/750. If the living room leads directly to the terrace, or if it shall be subjected to lots of traffic, we recommend using tiles with at least PEI 3/1500. In the living room, you can use both glazed and unglazed tiles, keeping in mind that in the case of polished and lappato surfaces, scratching elements (such as sand, metal furniture feet) should be avoided.
The terrace and balcony are susceptible to large temperature fluctuations. Therefore, in both cases, the same tiles can be used. Additionally, the terrace (especially if it’s directly connected to the garden or the area around the house) is very susceptible to dirtying, including sand, gravel, and other abrasive molecules, which can have a negative impact on tile's surface. Tiles for the balcony and terrace should, therefore, be frost-resistant, have at least PEI 3 abrasion resistance, as well as anti-slip properties. In both cases, unglazed gres and clinker tiles are perfect. When installing tiles on the terrace, remember about the spacing and use appropriate seals and insulation. For outdoor finishes, you can use both glazed and unglazed tiles, keeping in mind that in the case of polished surfaces, scratching elements (such as sand, metal furniture feet) should be avoided. Lappato glazed tiles should only be used as façade cladding.
Highly resistant tiles (class 3 abrasion resistance minimum) should be used for the hall. It is also advisable to use tiles with a delicate texture, without any recesses, to avoid excessive accumulation of dirt.
Begin preparing the base by cleaning it thoroughly. It is necessary to check the base levelling and humidity. If the surface where the tiles are to be installed is uneven, you can level it by using a self-levelling mortar compound. However, if the surface irregularity is very noticeable and the differences in level are substantial, it is required to level the entire floor. In the case of underfloor heating, an important step before laying the tiles is a visual evaluation of the floor base (the quality of the jointless floor, expansion joints, occurrence of cracks in the floor). Begin preparing the base by cleaning it thoroughly. It is necessary to check the floor levelling, required load capacity and humidity. The next step is surface priming since the proper preparation of the base has a decisive influence on the technical and utility parameters of the various types of finishes used on it. One of the most important steps for preparing surfaces for later use is their priming. Using the right primer increases the adhesion of the surface, strengthens it and reduces the absorption. Materials used to prepare the base with underfloor heating should be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations (thickness, setting time, etc.) and full pressing without leaving free air space forming a thermal insulation.
The tiling should start with planning, determining the axes of laying, taking the spacing into consideration, and "dry laying" the tiles on the floor. After the planning, collect the tiles and step by step arrange them on the evenly distributed adhesive mortar. The mortar layer should be no thicker than recommended by the manufacturer of the adhesive. For this purpose, a serrated trowel is required to provide a complete covering of the back of the tiles with adhesive (e.g., a 10 mm or 12 mm toothing should be used for adhesive mortar max. 5 mm thick). In the case of underfloor heating, the incomplete covering of tiles' back surface with adhesive mortar will result in a significant loss of floor heating performance. Adhesives for ceramic tiles must be applied according to the technology recommended by their manufacturer. In practice, two technological solutions are used: a) Basic, in which the adhesive is spread on the floor with a smooth trowel and then profiled with a serrated trowel. You apply the tile to the mortar by slightly pressing and sliding it. This method ensures a strong bonding of the adhesive with the base, achieving a uniform thickness of the adhesive layer and adequate interlayer adhesion. It is called a "floating method". b) The second possible solution is to apply the adhesive to both surfaces being bonded – the base and the back of a tile. When using this method, it is important to apply enough adhesive to ensure that its total thickness does not exceed the thickness recommended by the manufacturer. It is called a "floating and buttering method" method, but in practice, the names of "combined method" or "double smearing method" are used. This solution is recommended for laying floor tiles indoors, as well as laying wall and floor tiles outdoors, as it makes the complete filling of the space between the base and the back of the tile, and its even support throughout the whole surface easier. The method of applying adhesive only to the back of the tiles is incorrect and not recommended. It is only permitted in exceptional situations, such as when placing narrow strips of tiles from the bottom of the walls, fixing tiles on plinths or when replacing one tile in the entire cladding. In the case of laying tiles on underfloor heating, it is important to remember to keep the surface expansion joints that separate independent heating zones. It is important due to thermal expansion of materials. Taking temperature fluctuations into account, the floor should be divided, if possible, every 9-16 m2. When spacing the surface, try to create square shaped areas, with edge spacing between flooring and walls, separating the floor surface from the wall. Expansion joints in the layer of tiles should be compatible with the existing expansion joints in the base. For large tiles, we recommend the use of tile levelling systems, which greatly improve the visual appearance of the floor and allow for the removal of obstructions caused by unevenness of the base, glazing imperfections and curvature of the tiles. It is also worth remembering that the method of bonding the tile has a great effect on its strength, so it is important to perform this task very carefully.
Ceramic tiles can be cut in three ways. The simplest way to cut tiles is to make a shallow cut with a glazing knife on the front side of the tile. Then the tile should be broken with a vigorous move. If the tile breaks unevenly, unnecessary elements should be removed using the glaze pliers and the remaining irregularities must be smoothed with an angle grinder or a tungsten file. The second way to cut the tiles is using a glaze cutter, the so-called "guillotine". First, draw a cutting line on the tile; all markings are best applied on the edge or in places that will be cut off. After applying the necessary markings, you can put the tile in the cutter. Using a cutter, make a simple shallow cut along the defined line, and using the foot (which is one of the cutter's elements) press the surface of the tile to break it along the created cut. It is also recommended, as in the case of the first method, to smooth the irregularities formed on the edge of the tile being cut. The third way is to cut the tiles using a saw with a diamond blade. This method is the most professional one, but the purchase of such an equipment is expensive. When cutting tiles using this method it is possible to mill their edges at an angle of 45o. Thanks to this, the tiles will create a beautiful corner, impossible to create by cutting the tiles in a different way.
When laying ceramic tiles, be sure to keep proper grout joints between the tiles. For rectified tiles, a suitable width of the grout line should be used and the recommended width of grout joints is at least 1.5 mm. The majority of the rectified tiles manufactured by Ceramika Paradyż require grout lines with a minimum width of 2 mm. With such narrow grout lines, it is important to use larger expansion joints near the walls. On the other hand, for a non-rectified tile, the grout line should have a width of approximately 3-6 mm (depending on the size of the tiles). It is also recommended that in the case of laying tiles on terraces, areas in direct contact with external zones, as well as areas subject to deformation (underfloor heating, settling buildings), the width of the grout joints, depending on the size of the tiles, was increased accordingly. Before starting the grouting, it is advisable to carry out a test in a hidden area, which will allow you to determine the time needed for the joint mortar to bond. The prepared mass should be spread with a rubber trowel and washed with a highly absorbent sponge. The tiles should be grouted in batches, on a surface not bigger than 3 - 4 m2. You should also remember that at the meeting point of horizontal and vertical surfaces, you should use a silicone joint. The grouted surface must be cleaned in accordance with the recommendations of the joint mortar manufacturers.
Tiles manufactured by the Paradyż Group do not require additional impregnation of the surface. As a manufacturer of ceramic cladding, we do not recommend using products for tile impregnation, because they change the technical characteristics of the cladding. Impregnation creates a layer on the surface of the tiles, giving them different performance characteristics and ultimately being responsible for their appearance. This effect is evident when impregnation is applied to tiles located in passageways, where impregnation slowly wears off over the course of months in the areas most frequently used. In addition to changing the surface properties of the tile, the impregnation can also increase the susceptibility to staining, thus achieving the effect opposite to the intended. Each protection layer applied to the surface of a ceramic tile is, in fact, a chemical agent of a certain composition, which is not always communicated to the consumer. Therefore, it is impossible to determine the components contained in the impregnation and to predict the chemical reactions occurring between them and the substances coming in contact with the surface.
The ceramic tiles should be cleaned of day-to-day dirt with alkaline agents and an acidic medium should be used periodically to remove the scale from evaporated water used for daily washing, as well as to remove any residues remaining after the tiling. The choice of agents used for washing the cladding depends on the degree of dirtiness and the type of dirt. For lappato tiles, as well as for removing residues remaining after the tiling, use only agents with neutral pH (6.5 to 7.5).
The first thing to do at the end of laying the tiles is the initial cleaning, which removes the remains of adhesive, grout and lime from the ceramic surface. Typically, a slightly acidic medium is used, which is left for a short time on the surface of the tiles and then rinsed with clean water (it is recommended to follow the manufacturer's instructions and to test it on a small surface first). Dirty areas should be slightly soaked with water first. Depending on the degree of dirtiness, you can dilute the agent 1:3 with water. Apply a small amount of agent without diluting it to particularly dirty areas – leave the soaked dirt for a few minutes, then wash it off and thoroughly rinse with water. Be careful not to wash the surface of grout with the agent, as this can lead to its discolouration. After finishing the cleaning process, thoroughly wash everything with water or a mild alkaline solution. The most common agents used for initial cleaning are, among others: Atlas Szop, HG "joint mortar removal agent" or Mira 7120 "ceramic cleaner", TENZI "After-construction floor cleaning 1".
The durability of the tile pattern is closely related to the abrasion resistance (PEI) of a given product. The higher the abrasion resistance class of a given product, the longer the pattern on a tile will stay intact. On the other hand, if the tile has low abrasion resistance, there is a risk that the pattern on its surface will be destroyed relatively quickly. On the other hand, lack of a PEI parameter in case of floor tiles suggests that a given product is an unglazed product for which a deep abrasion resistance testing is performed. This test determines what is the volume of material worn (during the testing) from the surface of the tile (in mm3). For this test, the lower the value, the greater the abrasion resistance of the tested material. It is good to remember that in the case of unglazed gres tiles with the same colour over the entire thickness of the tile, the abrasion resistance is less important. This is due to the fact that wear of the surface does not affect the visual change of their pattern. Therefore, it is recommended to use such tiles in areas with very high pedestrian traffic and where abrasive particles may be present. Information from the deep abrasion resistance test is provided in the performance declaration of a given component.
Tonality is the variation in pattern, graphics and tile colour that appear in the process of its production. Tonal tiles laid together do not create any pattern. This is an intended effect, thanks to which the room acquires a unique character. Therefore, it is recommended to mix at least several different packages when laying the tiles.
Rectification is a mechanical process that involves milling the edge of a tile at a right angle in relation to its surface. Thanks to this, the resulting elements can be laid without fear of size discrepancies, because during the rectification process, tiles of a given batch obtain the same size (with an accuracy up to ~0.2 mm). Both wall and floor tiles are subject to this treatment. This is particularly important for the latter, because – thanks to rectification – the tiles used for floors are not grouped by calibres. The appearance of rectified tiles on the market has caused them to be labelled "jointless" by users – that is no joints are required for laying them. However, this term is misleading because it is practically impossible to lay tiles without using joints and it carries a great risk of damaging them. Mainly due to the different linear expansion of the base and the materials used for tiling. Jointless inlaying creates a great risk of damage to already laid tiles and can be treated as a construction malpractice.
This is a parameter that determines the abrasion resistance class of tiles. It is expressed as two numbers. The first one determines the abrasion resistance class, the second one is the number of revolutions of a special cylinder, after which a glaze abrasion can be seen. Therefore, the higher the glaze abrasion resistance class, the longer the tile will retain its original appearance. This is one of the most important performance characteristics to consider when selecting tiles. Classification of abrasion resistance of glazed ceramic tiles: Class 0 (100); Class 1 (150); Class 2 (600); Class 3 (750, 1500); Class 4 (2100, 6000, 12000); Class 5 (Over 12000) In the case of floor tiles, lack of specified PEI parameter would mean that the product in question is unglazed, and a deep abrasion test is performed in its case.
The anti-slip property is an important parameter, especially for rooms where water is used and where humidity is present. The measurement is based on the achieved acceptance angle - the surface slope angle at which the tester can walk safely. For anti-slip floor tiles, the symbols R9-R13 are used (lower value means the tile is less slippery) : R9 – (lowest resistance) R10 – (normal resistance) R11 – (good resistance) R12 – (high resistance) R13 – (very high resistance) If the tile does not have a specified anti-slip property class, it means the value of the acceptance angle is very low. When selecting tiles, it is important to remember that the anti-slip property given by the manufacturer is tested on a specially prepared (oiled) surface. Applying mud, snow or icing of the surface will reduce the anti-slip properties. Therefore, in places where maximum adhesion to the ground is of particular importance, it is advisable to use elements with additional improvements (such as corrugated steps, which are ideal for use on stairs).
Frost resistance is the resistance of a material saturated with water subjected to the destructive effect of low freezing temperatures. Products marked as frost resistant are designed for use as external cladding, exposed to water and too low and variable temperatures. More precisely, this parameter means the resistance of ceramic tiles to temperature cycles of crossing the 0°C mark, thanks to which it is not damaged by the influence of negative temperatures. The frost resistance parameter is partly related to the water absorbability of ceramic tiles, and therefore the penetration of water molecules into the tile's structure. Frost tolerant tiles are considered to have Eb≤3% water absorbability, that is being capable of absorbing no more than 3% of water due to their nature. This group contain gres, clinker and monocottura tiles, therefore these tiles are ideal for use outdoors and in areas exposed to temperature drops below 0°C.
The shade of manufactured tiles varies depending on the firing process, because of the physicochemical reactions taking place under the conditions in the furnace. This is a normal occurrence in the process of manufacturing ceramics. Taking into account the classification of ceramic tiles due to the presence of glaze, the differentiation of shades comes in two different ways: • In the case of glazed tiles, the shade refers to changes in the glaze, that is the component on which it is possible to have a limited effect. • In the case of unglazed tiles, the shade refers to the ceramic mass, that depends on the mineral mix used during the production. This results in two different numbering systems for shades – for glazed and unglazed tiles. At the Paradyż Group's plants, glazed tiles are manufactured in up to 5 shades. Shade 0 (also called the template – TE). In addition to it, there are two lighter versions called A1 and A2 and two darker ones, that is B1 and B2. In the case of unglazed tiles, that is some clinker and gres collections, the number of shades is not limited. Each production batch is characterised by a different colouring. For this reason, the intensity of shading of each subsequent batch goes up, starting with the capital letter and complementing it with a numerical value, that is starting from A1 to ending with Z99. Keep in mind that, unlike the nomenclature used for glazed tiles, consecutive shades of unglazed tiles do not indicate any similarity, and therefore shades e.g. C21 and C22 may or may not be similar.
The calibre parameter applies only to floor tiles because, in the process of firing these tiles under high temperatures, a contraction of the ceramic mass occurs. As a result, the plates coming out of the furnace are slightly different in size. Under the tolerance set by the EN 14411:2006 standard, these tiles are grouped into appropriate dimensional ranges, which were named calibres. Calibre markings are put on each package, making it much easier to purchase tiles in the same calibre. It is important to pay attention to this since it is not advisable to lay different calibre tiles on the same surface.
Ceramika Paradyż offers many types of surfaces, so everyone can find something for themselves. Currently, we offer: structural, satin, polished, semi-polished, glossy, matte tiles.
The resistance to staining of ceramic tiles is tested in accordance with the PN-EN ISO 10545-14 standard. The test consists of keeping the test solution for a certain period of time on the sample's visible surface and visual evaluation of possible irreversible changes in its appearance. Ceramic tiles examined in this way are classified according to five classes based on instructions in the standard. Class 5 is given to tiles, from the surface of which a visible colouration can be removed in the easiest way (after 24 hours, the standard reagents can be washed off with water). Whereas classified as class 1 are the tiles, from the surface of which a visible colouration causing an irreversible damage cannot be removed.
Gres is a ceramic tile with low water absorbability (less than 0.5%). It is the hardest type of ceramic tile, so it was originally intended mainly for areas exposed to the influence scratching factors. Low absorbability makes it a frost resistant material. Its parameters are consistent with the EN 14411 standard and it is manufactured in glazed and non-glazed form. Glazed gres is currently the most popular floor cladding for all indoor and outdoor applications. It has very good performance characteristics, such as: low absorbability, high resistance to bending, high hardness and abrasion resistance. it comes in various surface types: matte, polished, semi-polished and lappato (a kind of polished glaze). Glazing allows for achieving a variety of visual effects and applying all kinds of graphics. Unglazed gres is a tile, which – due to skipping the glazing stage – is very resistant to mechanical factors. Therefore, it is mainly intended for investment applications, although due to the influence of modern interior trends, it is also frequently used in living quarters. It can be manufactured in a single or double charge technology, it is available in three types of surfaces: matte, polished and structural. Technical gres is a type of unglazed gres with high resistance parameters, at the same time having the least varied design range. Manufactured in 30 x 30 cm format, it is an ideal choice for high traffic areas.
Double charge is a technology of manufacturing tiles, where glazing is skipped, making the tiles created using this technology extremely resistant to mechanical damage and abrasion. This technology consists of applying the second layer to the previously prepared base, which allows for creating graphic motifs that reflect natural materials and naturally occurring phenomena. The first layer (1st charge) is a standard production granulate (or blend of granulates) that can be additionally dry or wet dyed to adjust its colour to the top layer. The second layer (2nd charge) depends on the collection: • It is a mix of dry dyed granulates appropriately ground (micronised) and mixed together to obtain a unique graphic effect on each tile. • The decorative layer is a mix of appropriately dry dyed granulates that are dispensed to form a programmed graphics on the surface of the tile. The graphics consist of appropriately oriented mixes of dyed granulates, forming soft lines and strips with delicate tonal transitions.
Monoporosis is a type of wall tiles with water absorbability over 10% and parameters consistent with the EN 14411 standard. Due to the high – comparing to other product groups – absorbency parameter, they are not intended to be laid in areas where the temperature drops below 0°C, and the glaze specific for this group prohibits them from being laid on the floor.
Monocottura is a type of single-fired ceramic tiles designed for laying on the floor. They demonstrate frost resistance, anti-slip, as well as abrasion resistance parameters. They always come in a glazed version, so they can be decorated with varied designs and graphics. Their parameters are consistent with the EN 14411 standard.
Clinker is a ceramic material that owes its properties and colour to the presence of red clay. It is fired at a high temperature and achieves high resistance to mechanical loads and frost, making it an excellent choice for laying in entrance areas, halls and corridors, as well as on terraces, stairs, façades, window sills and fences. Manufactured in glazed and non-glazed versions, in most cases, it is used as a complete programme of finishing stairs, terraces, balconies and façades.
Ceramic tiles have an average thickness of 6 to 16 mm, so it is recommended to check the thickness of the product you are interested in prior to the purchase.
In such a bathroom, bright natural colours and materials will dominate. White, wood, stone compose the basis of the eco-style. When it comes to accessories, you can let your imagination run wild. The ecological style will be emphasised by floral patterns and simple accessories. It is good to keep in mind the ecological idea and try to use or renew old furniture or fittings. Remember about the warm light that will emphasise natural colours.
A very modern way to decorate the interior, characterised by geometric forms and patterns that can be found on the walls or floors. The furniture is simple in form, accessories can demonstrate geometric references. The room is quiet and subdued, and clear geometric patterns are the only strong accent in it.
Sophisticated and luxurious, full of glamour and splendour. A stylish glamour bathroom combines different trends, taking advantage of classical, palatial, as well as modern interiors. When planning a glamour-styled bathroom, you need to remember about distinct, strong accessories, but also about skilfully matching all details to maintain its bold, original and unique character.
It is a relatively new style, referring to urban, somewhat industrial way of designing interiors. Its characteristic colours are grey, white and even black. Its distinct textures are dominating, often referring to concrete and stone. The room must contain bricks, exposed pipes or other metal elements. The bathroom will be quite austere, but wooden or intensely coloured accessories will soften a bit its cool form.
The name of the style speaks for itself – discreet elegance, delicate decorations and harmony. Classicism draws its strength and beauty from the past, referring to traditional aesthetics and moderation. Bright colours can be broken here with delicate, colour consistent, but strong decorations and textures – floral and distinct patterns. Interior must be elegant and timeless.
It is an extremely popular style. Why? Because it is so versatile that it is easy to match your favourite accessories to it. The characteristic features of a bathroom decorated in this style are, above all, the minimum number of accessories, straight lines and equipment elements that complement one another perfectly. When planning a minimalistic bathroom, you should remember about delicate colours and smooth surfaces.
Warm and cosy interiors, inspired by country houses. Such interiors are full of wood, referencing to the past and nature. Apart from wooden and stone decorations, they are dominated by bright colours. The rustic bathroom evokes traditional patterns and motifs while maintaining a cosy feel.
A bathroom in this style reflects the admiration of natural colours, sophisticated minimalism and skilful combination of materials bestowed upon us by nature. For this reason, the most commonly used raw materials are wood and stone, but also concrete. The colours in a bathroom decorated in this style are bright, calm and warm – white, wood and natural fabrics dominate here. It is definitely an idea for people who are looking for modern solutions.
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